The best treatment will depend on the tumour cells’ characteristics, disease stage, age and general health of the patient.
The main types of treatment for bladder cancer are surgery (TUR or cystectomy), radiation therapy, intravesical therapy (washes), and systemic chemotherapy. Depending on the cancer stage, one type of treatment may be given alone, or different modalities may be combined.
Transurethral endoscopic surgery (TUR)
Transurethral resection (TUR) is the most common surgery for early-stage or superficial cancers of the bladder. For this operation, a type of rigid cystoscope called a resectoscope or sector is placed into the bladder through the urethra. Because the resectoscope has a wire loop at its tip to remove tumour tissue, the urologist can see inside the bladder and remove it altogether.
When an infiltrating or muscle-invasive cancer of the bladder is diagnosed, it may be necessary to remove part or all of the bladder. This operation is called a cystectomy.
When the entire bladder is completely removed, a radical cystectomy is performed. In this operation, the whole organ is removed along with the prostate (in men) and nearby lymph nodes. In women, the ovaries, fallopian tubes (the tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus), the uterus (womb), and a small portion of the vagina along with the bladder are often removed.
The incision was made in the abdomen to remove the bladder
Various types of reconstructive surgery can be performed, depending on the patient’s general health and personal preferences (whenever possible).
In selected cases of infiltrating cancer, the bladder can be preserved or preserved by transurethral resection of cancer (TUR) together with radiotherapy and chemotherapy; it would be what we call a trimodal treatment.
This sac is connected to the skin of the abdomen through an opening called a urinary stoma. Sometimes, urine is continuously carried into a small bag over the stoma. An example is an ileal conduit or Bricker-type diversion, created from part of the small intestine.
Intravesical therapy means treatment is placed directly into the bladder (through a catheter or tube) instead of being given by mouth or injected into a vein. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin ( BCG) is the most frequently used intravesical therapy for non-infiltrating but high-risk bladder cancer.
BCG instillations are usually done once a week for six weeks. Long-term BCG maintenance therapy is sometimes given. BCG therapy can be shown in conjunction with transurethral resection of the tumour.
Anticancer drugs are given directly into the bladder through an intravesical catheter or tube for this treatment. These drugs, in this way, primarily affect the urothelial cells lining the bladder with little or no effect on cells elsewhere. Chemotherapy is used only for non-muscle invasive bladder cancers. This treatment uses drugs that actively kill growing cancer cells. Many of the same medicines used intravesically are also given systemically (orally or intravenously) to treat more advanced stages of bladder cancer.
Intravesical BCG immunotherapy.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat cancer. The drugs enter the bloodstream and circulate throughout the body. This is called systemic chemotherapy. Systemic chemotherapy can affect cancer cells that are distant from the primary tumour.
Chemotherapy may also be given after the tumour has been removed with surgery (or radiation). This is called adjuvant therapy ) to help make the radiation more effective. Chemotherapy can make radiation more effective, but it also increases side effects.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. External beam radiation therapy directs radiation at cancer from outside the body. Local or interstitial radiation therapy uses tiny seeds of radioactive material placed directly into cancer. After surgery, radiation can destroy small deposits of cancer cells that may not have been seen during surgery. The combination of radiation therapy and after transurethral bladder surgery sometimes kills cancers that would otherwise require treatment with a cystectomy. WHAT IS WHAT ARE THE PROGNOSIS OF THE DISEASE?
When cancer comes back after treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. The recurrence or recurrence can be local (at or near the place where it started) or distant in the form of metastasis (spread to organs such as the lungs or bones). The prognosis and treatment of recurrent bladder cancer depend on the location and extent of recurrent cancer and the type of treatment that was previously given.
- Bladder cancer
- General information and diagnosis
- Bladder Cancer Treatment